PalahBiswas On Unique Identity No1.mpg

Thursday, December 16, 2010

Will the strategic Equation in this geopolitics change? No, as the Ruling Brahaminical Hegemony may not delink Indian Economy with US zionsit corporate interests!What if,Indian and China have agreed a new $100bn (£66bn) bilateral trade target by 2015

Will the strategic Equation in this geopolitics change? No, as the Ruling Brahaminical Hegemony may not delink Indian Economy with US zionsit corporate interests!What if,Indian and China have agreed a new $100bn (£66bn) bilateral trade target by 2015, up from $60bn (£38bn) in 2010!China to listen to India on Brahmaputra issue!

4 permanent UNSC members strike $40 bn deals with India in '10

2G probe won't hurt ties with Congress: Kanimozhi

Kashmir visa row should be discussed, says Wen

Sebi bars five cos and their directors from trading in markets

Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time - FIVE Hundred  Forty FOUR

Palash Biswas

Will the Strategic Equation in this geopolitics change? No, as the Ruling Brahaminical Hegemony may not delink Indian Economy with US zionsit corporate interests!What if,Indian and China have agreed a new $100bn (£66bn) bilateral trade target by 2015, up from $60bn (£38bn) in 2010! The two sides agreed to take measures to promote greater Indian exports to China to reduce India's trade deficit.As BBC reports,Companies have already signed business deals worth $16bn (£10.2bn) on the opening day of Chinese PM Wen Jiabao's three-day official visit to India.

India is linked with USSR and USA, either of the superpowers for last six decades. India played NON Aligned role with dictations from Kremlin. Indian Defence had been linked with USSR and later with Russia and the situation has not been changed even after strategical realliance in US Israel lead and Indo US Nuclear deal signed.India is strategically into a transitional destability which is reflected in its strategic as well as foreign relations despite the omnipresent influence of Global Zionsit Hindutva.

Indian psyche is inflicted with China Phbia after the Border conflict in 1962 and the relations Never did improve.It is highly unlikely that any trade  route would lead to a mature relationship in view of the strategic geoplitical situation, given the abnormal circumstances of Hijacked Sovereignty in the Virtual Peripherry of United states!

At a time when New Delhi is making a strong pitch for a permanent membership in the UNSC, four of the five-permanent council members, including China , have this year alone agreed on over USD 40 billion economic deals with India.

Four of the five permanent United Nations Security Council (UNSC) members -- the US, China, France and the UK -- have announced various trade and business deals.

In signs of India's growing clout in the global arena, all the multi-billion dollar plans were unveiled during the visit of their respective country heads to India in 2010.

Another permanent council member Russia is expected to announce various deals with India, during Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev's two-day visit starting December 21.

"The (investment and trade promotion) mission is scheduled to sign economic and trade agreements worth more than USD 16 billion with Indian companies," Chinese premier Wen Jiabao, who is on a three-day visit, said here on Wednesday.

Earlier this month, French President Nicolas Sarkozy's visit to India saw the announcement of various deals estimated to be worth nearly USD 13 billion.

Among the major pacts inked during Sarkozy's four-day visit include that between French energy giant Areva and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) for the supply of two nuclear reactors and fuel.

US President Barack Obama, who made his maiden visit to India in November, announced business deals pegged at USD 10 billion. These include Anil Ambani-led Reliance Power's USD 2 billion-worth equipment sourcing plan and SpiceJet's pact with Boeing 777 to purchase 30 aircrafts for nearly USD 3 billion.

All these deals are expected to generate over 50,000 jobs in the US, which is grappling with high unemployment levels.

British Prime Minister David Cameron came to India in late July this year and the visit also saw the UK striking an over USD 1 billion defence deal.

China will take into account India's downstream interests on the transborder Brahmaputra river when constructing hydropower projects, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said on Thursday.

Work began on damming the river, known in China as the Yarlung Tsangpo, in November, sparking Indian concerns of its potential downstream impact.

Wen was speaking during his three-day visit to New Delhi.

India and China may have certain points of disagreement but this cannot stop them from establishing a stronger relationship, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said on Thursday.

"We both are big nations and ancient nations, so it is quite natural that we have certain points where we don't agree," Wen said in a speech delivered at the Indian Council for World Affairs here.

"However, we have cooperated for more than 2,000 years. The various factors cannot stop us from establishing a good relationship," he said.

"Relations have developed and I am confident that we will able able to establish further cooperative relationship," he said.

The Chinese leader also referred to the ideals of Panchsheel, the five principles of coexistence established between the two countries in 1954.

China would soon become India's biggest trading partner, Wen pointed out. "We both will cooperate in forums like G-20 to establish a just economic order in the world."

Wen stated that both nations faced great challenges and also "enormous development".

"There is muti-polarism in the world but still certain bad things happening in the world which have brought challenges for both of our nations," he pointed out.

The Chinese leader lavished praise on the interaction between the cultures of the two civilisations over the millenia.

"Indian culture has encriched Chinese culture. Chinese culture also left its impression on India," he said.

"(Rabindranath) Tagore has left deep impression on Chinese intelligentsia. And there have been many scholars who have studied Indian culture," the Chinese premier added.

Wen noted that Indian culture had left a "deep impression on Chinese thought and world thinking process".

He noted that the "contribution of Dr (Dwarkanath) Kotnis is still very deep in our mindset".

Kotnis was one of five Indian doctors who went to offer medical assistance during the Sino-Japanese war in 1938.

Hotline between Indian, Chinese PMs starts.Kashmir visa row should be discussed, says Wen!

The much talked about hotline between the Indian and Chinese prime ministers got operational "three or four days ago", Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao said Thursday.

Rao made the announcement at a press conference after the conclusion of bilateral level talks between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and China's Wen Jiabao whose three-day visit ends Friday.

"Our technical people have been working on it for some time," she said. "It is between the prime ministers."

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao suggested on Thursday that Indian and Chinese officials should discuss New Delhi's demand that Beijing should not give stapled visas to residents of Jammu and Kashmir, Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao said.

Rao told a news conference that Wen, on the second day of his three-day India visit, brought up the issue himself even before the Indians could raise it.

She quoted Wen as saying that " China takes this issue, takes our concerns very seriously" and that "officials of the two sides should have in-depth consultations so that this issue can be resolved satisfactorily".

Rao quickly added: "The ball is in their court, I don't deny it."

China has been giving stapled visas to people from Jammu and Kashmir, implicitly questioning the legality of New Delhi's control over the divided Himalayan state.

Asked if the Indian side made it clear to the Chinese that Jammu and Kashmir was to New Delhi what Tibet was to Beijing, Rao said: "Our position is well known to the Chinese."

External Affairs Minister S M Krishna on Thursday said the relationship between India and China is multi-dimensional and encompasses vigorous political exchanges, widespread people-to-people intercourse and strategic cooperation in regional and multilateral initiatives.

"As countries availing of historic opportunities for economic and social development, India and China see no contradiction in each other's rise. We increasingly realize that it is important to leverage each other's growth and development for our own prosperity and progress. As inheritors of ancient civilizations, the modern nation-states of India and China have the maturity and wisdom to deal with any differences through dialogue and diplomacy," said Krishna speaking at the Indian Council of World Affairs here.

"Both of us have an abiding commitment to the Panchsheel principles that we jointly initiated, and realize the importance of mutual sensitivity to each other's core concerns and interests," he added expressing confidence that both India and China will jointly write an even brighter chapter in history in the years ahead, with both assuming rightful place in the comity of nations.

Further expressing his delight to have the visiting Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao as the guest on the occasion, Krishna said: "As Vice President of the Indian Council of World Affairs, I am delighted that Premier Wen has set aside time in his busy schedule to reach out to scholars, media and the general public of India through his address at this Institute."

"As someone witness to the meeting between our two leaders this morning, I can say that he shares our own optimism about the strength and potential of India-China relations. I am as eager as all of you to listen to Premier Wen's lofty vision for our partnership and his prescription for attaining that," he added.

The External Affairs Minister further said Premier Jiabao's visit to India symbolizes the rendezvous between 1.3 billion Chinese people and 1.1 billion Indians.

"It will set the terms of engagement between the two fastest growing economies in the world. It embodies the determination of the leaders of the largest Asian nations and contiguous neighbours to forge stronger political trust, maturely address differences and build global partnership," said Krishna.

Krishna said the interaction between India and China, and jointly with the rest of the world, is a topic of immense contemporary importance.

"Little wonder, therefore, that interest in Premier Wen's visit is not limited to our two countries. How India and China interact with each other, and jointly with the rest of the world, is a topic of immense contemporary importance. Very few people can speak about India-China relations as authoritatively and as comprehensively as Premier Wen," said Krishna.

"As Head of the Government of China for nearly eight years, he has presided over a period of unprecedented intensification of bilateral ties, personally steering our relations from strength to strength. It was during his previous visit in April 2005 that India and China established a Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity. Many of the initiatives and much of the progress in our relations benefited from the wisdom and sagacity of Premier Wen and Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, and their shared vision of partnership," he added.

The China-India-U.S. Triangle: Strategic Relations in the Post-Cold War Era

John W. Garver

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A new strategic triangle among the United States, China, and India emerged from the flux in international relations created by the end of the Cold War. The new triangle had taken clear form by the time of the South Asian nuclear tests of 1998, and is being consciously and enthusiastically "played" by strategists in all three capitals. Washington, Beijing, and New Delhi more frequently perceive each of their national interests as being adversely affected by an alignment of the other two against it, and thus a minuet of strategic triangular relations has resulted. Extant and emerging issues of concern to the strategic triangle are the India-China border dispute, establishing nuclear deterrents, the war on terrorism, relations with Pakistan, and political and economic influence in the South Asia-Indian Ocean region. The deep geopolitical rivalry between India and China, combined with the expanded influence of the United States, makes U.S. support of one Asian rival against the other an extremely important strategic factor. At the same time, there are leaders in both China and India who resent the U.S. global position and find attractive, if impractical, the possibility of identifying issues on which they might cooperate against the United States. Despite its potential importance, the origins, dynamics, and implications of this strategic triangle are not well understood and have already led to controversies over U.S. policy. This article examines the dynamics of the rapidly developing Sino-Indian-U.S. triangle and traces the process by which all three actors have learned the rules of the new strategic relations.

More on this topic

Sino-U.S. Competition and U.S. Security: How Do We Assess the Military Balance? Power Constrained: Sources of Mutual Strategic Suspicion in U.S.-China Relations Assessing India's Reactions to China's Peaceful Development Doctrine Japanese-Taiwanese Relations and the Role of China and the U.S. Partnering with India: Regional Power, Global Hopes Asia's Security and the Contested Global Commons Introduction (Strategic Asia 2002-03) China (Strategic Asia 2002-03) Trade, Interdependence, and Security in Asia Managing China as a Strategic Challenge

India-China relations has assumed global, strategic significance

2010-12-16 17:00:00

Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh on Thursday said that relationship between India and China has transcended the bilateral dimension and has assumed global and strategic significance.
In an opening statement issued ahead of bilateral discussions at the Hyderabad House here, Dr. Singh said: " our relationship has assumed global and strategic significance. The growing inter-dependence of nations provides both the opportunity and the obligation for India and China to cooperate together to meet the challenges facing the international community."
Dr. Singh further said that rapid economic growth had opened new opportunities for long term partnership between India and China, and added that this would contribute to stability in Asia and the world.
"Since 2005 our countries have maintained an intensive high-level dialogue," he added.
"Apart from my bilateral visit to China in 2008, I have met your Excellency and his Excellency Hu Jintao close to 20 times in the last five years. This shows the intensity of our interaction. Since you last visit to India in 2005 both our countries and international situation has witnessed many changes. Rapid socio-economic transformation in India," he added.
"This is your second visit and I have no doubt that it will impart new impetus to our relationship and advance our cooperation in new areas. International sit has witnessed many changes , rapid socio economic transformation of India and china has opened up new opportunities for progress in our relations in all fields," he said.
"As the Asian century unfolds, we must work together to bring peace, stability and development to our peoples, to the region and to the world at large. India stands ready to play its part in this important and noble enterprise," he added.
Dr. Singh further said that India and China are young nations but ancient civilizations.
"Our history abounds in exchanges of scholars, monks, pilgrims, traders, craftspersons, travellers and ideas. These exchanges have enriched our societies. They have given strength and resilience to our relations in modern times," he added. (ANI)

2G probe won't hurt ties with Congress: Kanimozhi

CHENNAI: DMK MP Kanimozhi today said her party will come out clean in the CBI probe into the 2G spectrum issue and voiced confidence that the ties with the Congress will not come under strain on the issue.

"The law has to take its own course. It is a process to prove us not guilty. Definitely we will come out clean," Kanimozhi, who is the daughter of DMK chief M Karunanidhi, told reporters here, a day after CBI conducted raids against her associates and those close to ex-telecom minister A Raja.

Asserting that DMK was open to the ongoing probe, she denied any strain in ties with the Congress party.

"No strains at all.... I am sure together we will prove that nothing wrong is going on," she said replying to a question whether the developments had affected ties with the Congress.

Kanimozhi denied allegations that her mother Rajathi Ammal owned Royal Enterprises , a furniture mart, had purchased prime land on arterial Anna road, saying "the property was owned by a private party and not by Tatas, as reported in some media.

"One former employee of the furniture mart, Saravanan acted as an intermediary and the property was sold to a Malaysian businessman. My family has no connection in the deal," she said.

In a crackdown yesterday as part of the 2G spectrum scam probe, CBI searched 34 offices and residences of corporate lobbyist Nira Radia, former TRAI chairman Pradip Baijal, siblings of Raja and an NGO linked to Kanimozhi and claimed to have recovered several incriminating documents.

The premises of Kamaraj, Associate Editor of Tamil magazine 'Nakkeran' in Chennai, Raja's brother and sister near Tiruchirappalli and Tamil Maiyam, an NGO in which Kanimozhi, is on the Board of Directors were among those searched.

The investigating agency also swooped down on the premises of Raja's auditor Subramanyam and also auditor of Kanimozhi's mother. 

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  • China became India's largest trading partner in 2008
  • Bilateral trade to hit $60bn this year
  • By 2050, they are tipped to be the world's two leading economies
  • India's top exports to China include ore, fabrics, copper, precious stones and metals
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India and China may have certain points of disagreement but this cannot stop them from establishing a stronger relationship, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said on Thursday.On the other hand,the Tibetan government-in-exile today said the border dispute between India and China cannot be resolved until the issue of Tibet is addressed first.  

Meanwhile,the US has stopped the momentum of the Taliban in Afghanistan and will begin withdrawing troops from Afghanistan next summer, an Obama administration review said today.

The Plan panel today said RBI's decision to infuse Rs 48000 crore into the banking system and leave interest rates untouched is to ensure adequate liquidity without aggravating inflation. The Sensex ended trade on a strong note ahead of a long weekend. After a disastrous fall last week, the Nifty recovered nearly 200 points to end near 5950 level this week.

Union Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh today rejected opposition demand for his resignation after the Supreme Court rebuked him for abusing his position as Chief Minister, an issue which rocked the Maharashtra Assembly.

On the other hand,Market regulator Sebi today barred five companies and their directors from trading in the securities market till all pending investor grievances against them are resolved.

The five firms affected by the order are: Indo American Credit Corporation, Kenal Oil & Export Industries , Kolar Biotech , Motorol Enterprise and Panjwani Packaging.

"In the matter of non-redressal of investor grievances by the... five companies and their directors... SEBI has passed orders dated December 15, 2010 restraining them from accessing the securities market and prohibit them from buying, selling or otherwise dealing in securities, directly or indirectly, till all the pending investor grievances against the companies are resolved," the Securities and Exchange Board of India said in a statement.

Sebi had received several complaints against the Ahmedabad-based Indo American Credit Corporation and a total of 85 investor grievances were pending against it as on September 24, 2008, related to various issues.

The company was charged with having failed to resolve the pending investor grievances and failure to provide any response to Sebi's queries.

In the case of Kenal Oil & Export Industries, 64 investor complaints were pending against it and the company had failed to file an Action Taken Report as directed by Sebi.

Similarly, Kolar Biotech, Motorol Enterprise and Panjwani Packaging had 58, 114 and 146 investors complaints against them dealing with various issues, Sebi said.

The latest of a number of world leaders to visit India, Mr Wen is accompanied by some 400 Chinese business leaders.BBC reports.

China is India's largest trading partner.

A joint communique signed by the two sides on Thursday said that they had agreed to expand co-operation in infrastructure, environment, information technology, telecommunications and investment and finance.

It said that both wanted "to draw on each other's strengths and pursue mutual benefit and win-win results".

Mr Wen held talks on Thursday with Indian PM Manmohan Singh.

The two men discussed a number of sensitive issues, including a long-running border dispute.

The two countries signed some 50 deals in power, telecommunications, steel, wind energy, food and marine products worth $16bn at the end of a business conference attended by Mr Wen in the capital, Delhi, on Wednesday evening.

This overtakes the $10bn of agreements signed between Indian and American businesspeople during the recent visit of US President Barack Obama.

"There is enough space in the world for the development of both China and India and there are enough areas for us to co-operate," Mr Wen told the business conference.
Massive delegation

Mr Wen - who last visited India five years ago - brings with him one of the largest teams of Chinese business leaders ever to visit India.
Continue reading the main story
The Chinese delegation dwarfs the number of trade chiefs led in recent weeks to India by US President Barack Obama (215), French President Nicolas Sarkozy (more than 60) and British Prime Minister David Cameron (about 40).

The communique said that the two sides had decided to establish a "mechanism of regular exchange of visits between heads of state and government".

"They welcomed the opening of the telephone hotline between the prime minister of India and the Chinese premier and agreed on regular consultations between the two leaders on issues of importance to both countries," it said.

"They also agreed to establish the mechanism of annual exchange of visits between the two foreign ministers."

On Thursday China's premier will also met India's External Affairs Minister SM Krishna and the ruling Congress party chief Sonia Gandhi.

Later in the week, Mr Wen will travel to India's nuclear-armed neighbour and rival, Pakistan, for a two-day official visit.

Though bilateral trade with China is booming, the relationship is not benefiting India as much as it might, say analysts.

Delhi has been demanding greater access to Chinese pharmaceutical and IT markets as it seeks to level a large trade surplus in China's favour of up to £25bn.

China's envoy to India, Zhang Yan, told reporters ahead of Mr Wen's visit: "Relations are very fragile, very easy to be damaged and very difficult to repair. Therefore they need special care in the information age."

Ties between the two countries were tested in August when India cancelled defence exchanges after China refused a visa to a general based in Indian-administered Kashmir.

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao pressed on with a charm offensive in India on Thursday, offering support for New Delhi's bid for a greater role in the United Nations and agreeing on an ambitious target of $100 billion in trade between the rising Asian powers by 2015.

Relations between the Asian giants are tense, despite the booming trade relationship between them. Nearly 40 years after they fought a war, there are still rifts over disputed borders, and suspicion in New Delhi over China's regional ambitions and its close ties with arch-rival, Pakistan.

But both Wen and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh exchanged vows of amity and goodwill ahead of brief bilateral talks in the capital, appearing to brush under the carpet a series of differences that have long dogged relations.

"I believe with our joint efforts, through the visit, we'll be able to raise our friendship and cooperation to a high level in the new century," said Wen, standing alongside Singh at the Indian presidential palace after a formal red-carpet welcome ceremony.

"With the joint efforts of the prime minister and I, we'll be able to reach (an) important strategic consensus during my visit and the visit will yield important outcomes."

Wen's visit, the first by a Chinese premier to India in five years, has looked carefully choreographed to improve ties between two countries which, between them, are home to more than a third of the world's population.

Arriving with more than 300 business leaders on Wednesday, Wen said that India and China were not rivals and there was room in the world for both powers to develop.

"There is a trust deficit, a trade deficit but certainly not a charm deficit," said broadcaster CNN-IBN Deputy Editor Sagarika Ghose.

Singh responded in kind to Wen's effusive words before they went into a meeting behind closed doors: "A strong partnership between India and China will contribute to long-term, peace, stability, prosperity and development in Asia and the world."


The two sides said they were aiming to raise bilateral trade to $100 billion by 2015 from $60 billion in 2001, partly driven by greater access for Indian firms to Chinese markets.

"The two sides agreed to take measure to promote greater Indian exports to China with a view to reduce India's trade deficit," the joint statement said.

India and China are the world's fastest-growing major economies. But India fears China wants to curtail its rise as a global power, and is concerned about Beijing 's close security ties with Pakistan where Wen arrives on Friday on the second part of his trip.

"Terror of any kind... cannot be an instrument of state policy. I think that is the message we will convey to Prime Minister Jiabao and hopefully he will convey that to Pakistan," Foreign Minister S.M. Krishna told CNN-IBN.

India and Pakistan have fought three wars since independence from Britain in 1947 and New Delhi broke off peace talks after Pakistani militants attacked landmarks in Mumbai in 2008, killing 166 people.

The joint statement outlined Beijing 's support for United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267, which calls for sanctions against the Lakshar-e-Taiba militant group that New Delhi blames for the attack and accuses Pakistan of harbouring.

India also fears China wants to restrict its global reach by possibly opposing its bid for a permanent U.N. Security Council seat or encircling the Indian Ocean region with massive projects from Pakistan to Myanmar .

China reiterated its support for India's aspirations to play a greater role in the Security Council, but it stopped short of expressing full backing for India.


Long wary of Washington's influence in South Asia, Beijing 's overtures toward New Delhi come just a little over a month after U.S. President Barack Obama 's trip to India, during which he endorsed India's long-held demand for a permanent seat.

Wen's avuncular style contrasts sharply with that of Singh, who is seen as shy and lacking charisma. Singh is also engulfed in what may be India's biggest corruption scandal, threatening the stability of the Congress party-led coalition government.

Wen announced on Wednesday that Chinese companies would sign deals with Indian firms worth more than $16 billionranging from power equipment to telecoms gear -- underscoring business was driving the relationship, for now. Chinese banks will provide the bulk of lending for these deals.

Although both India and China have said they are exploring a possible free-trade agreement, no real progress is expected on that front as there is some scepticism in New Delhi that Beijing may only want to dump cheap manufactured goods on India's booming $1.3 trillion economy.

China is now India's largest trade partner and two-way trade is expected to reach $60 billion in 2010/11 compared with a target of $40 billion. Trade was $13.6 billion in 2004/05 and $3 billion in 2001/02 -- illustrating the phenomenal growth rate.

Still, total investment by China in India is small, amounting to only $221 million in 2009, representing about 0.1 percent of China's total outward foreign direct investment in that year. That figure is seven times less than what China has invested in Pakistan, according to official data.

While the two are often lumped together as emerging world powers, China's GDP is four times bigger than India's and its infrastructure outshines India's dilapidated roads and ports, a factor that makes New Delhi wary of Beijing 's growing might.

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Foreign relations of India

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The Republic of India is the second most populous country and the world's most-populous democracyand recently has one of the fastest economic growth rates in the world.[1] With the world's tenth largest military expenditures,[2] and eleventh largest economy by nominal rates or fourth largest by purchasing power parity, India is considered to be a regional power,[3] and a potential global power.[4] It is India's growing international influence that increasingly gives it a more prominent voice in global affairs.[5][6][7][8]

India has a long history of collaboration with several countries and is considered a leader of thedeveloping world.[9][10] India was one of the founding members of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Asian Development Bank and the G20 industrial nations. India has also played an important and influential role in other international organizations like East Asia Summit,[11] World Trade Organization,[12] International Monetary Fund(IMF),[13] G8+5[14] and IBSA Dialogue Forum.[15] Regional organizations India is a part of includeSAARC and BIMSTEC. India has taken part in several UN peacekeeping missions and in 2007, it was the second-largest troop contributor to the United Nations.[16] India is currently seeking a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, along with the G4 nations.[17]




Even before independence, the Government of British India maintained semi-autonomous diplomatic relations. It had colonies (such as theAden Settlement), sent and received full diplomatic missions,[18] and was a founder member of both the League of Nations[19] and the United Nations.[20] After India gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, it soon joined the Commonwealth of Nations and strongly supported independence movements in other colonies, like the Indonesian National Revolution.[21] The partition and various territorial disputes, particularly that over Kashmir, would strain its relations with Pakistan for years to come. During the Cold War, India adopted a foreign policy of not aligning itself with any major power bloc. However, India developed close ties with the Soviet Union and received extensive military support from it.

The end of the Cold War significantly affected India's foreign policy, as it did for much of the world. The country now seeks to strengthen its diplomatic and economic ties with the United States,[22] the People's Republic of China,[23] the European Union,[24] Japan,[25] Israel,[26]Mexico,[27] and Brazil.[28] India has also forged close ties with the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations,[29] theAfrican Union,[30] the Arab League[31] and Iran.[32]

Though India continues to have a military relationship with Russia,[33] Israel has emerged as India's second largest military partner[30] while India has built a strong strategic partnership with the United States.[22][34] The Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement, signed and implemented in 2008, highlighted the growing sophistication of the Indo-American relations.[35]


Countries which have formal diplomatic relations with India.

India's foreign policy has always regarded the concept of neighborhood as one of widening concentric circles, around a central axis of historical and cultural commonalities.[36]

The guiding principles of India's Foreign Policy have been founded on Panchsheel, pragmatism and pursuit of national interest. In a period of rapid and continuing change, foreign policy must be capable of responding optimally to new challenges and opportunities. It has to be an integral part of the larger effort of building the nation's capabilities through economic development, strengthening social fabric and well-being of the people and protecting India's sovereignty and territorial integrity. India's foreign policy is a forward-looking engagement with the rest of the world, based on a rigorous, realistic and contemporary assessment of the bilateral, regional and global geo-political and economic milieu.

As many as 20 million people of Indian origin live and work abroad and constitute an important link with the mother country. An important role of India's foreign policy has been to ensure their welfare and well being within the framework of the laws of the country where they live.[37]

[edit]Role of the Prime Minister

Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in New Delhi. The Prime Minister, in collaboration with External Affairs Ministry, handles key foreign policy decisions.

Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister, promoted a strong personal role for the Prime Minister but a weak institutional structure. Nehru served concurrently as Prime Minister and Minister of External Affairs; he made all major foreign policy decisions himself after consulting with his advisers and then entrusted the conduct of international affairs to senior members of the Indian Foreign Service. His successors continued to exercise considerable control over India's international dealings, although they generally appointed separate ministers of external affairs.[38][39][40]

India's second prime minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri (1964–66), expanded the Office of Prime Minister (sometimes called the Prime Minister's Secretariat) and enlarged its powers. By the 1970s, the Office of the Prime Minister had become the de facto coordinator and supraministry of the Indian government. The enhanced role of the office strengthened the prime minister's control over foreign policy making at the expense of the Ministry of External Affairs. Advisers in the office provided channels of information and policy recommendations in addition to those offered by the Ministry of External Affairs. A subordinate part of the office—the Research and Analysis Wing(RAW)--functioned in ways that significantly expanded the information available to the prime minister and his advisers. The RAW gathered intelligence, provided intelligence analysis to the Office of the Prime Minister, and conducted covert operations abroad.

The prime minister's control and reliance on personal advisers in the Office of the Prime Minister was particularly strong under the tenures ofIndira Gandhi (1966–77 and 1980–84) and her son, Rajiv (1984–89), who succeeded her, and weaker during the periods of coalition governments. Observers find it difficult to determine whether the locus of decision-making authority on any particular issue lies with the Ministry of External Affairs, the Council of Ministers, the Office of the Prime Minister, or the prime minister himself.[41]

The Prime Minister is however free to appoint advisers and special committees to examine various foreign policy options and areas of interest.[42] In a recent instance, Manmohan Singh appointed K. Subrahmanyam in 2005 to head a special government task force to study 'Global Strategic Developments' over the next decade.[43] The Task Force submitted its conclusions to the Prime Minister in 2006.[44][45] The report has not yet been released in the public domain.

[edit]Ministry of External Affairs

The Ministry of External Affairs is the Indian government's agency responsible for the foreign relations of India. The Minister of External Affairs holds cabinet rank as a member of the Council of Ministers.

S. M. Krishna is current Minister of External Affairs. The Ministry has a Ministers of State in Preneet KaurIndian Foreign Secretary is the head of Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and therefore, serves as the head of all Indian ambassadors and high commissioners.[46] Nirupama Raois the current Foreign Secretary of India.


India's relations with the world have evolved since the British Raj (1857–1947), when the British Empire monopolized external and defense relations. When India gained independence in 1947, few Indians had experience in making or conducting foreign policy. However, the country's oldest political party, the Indian National Congress, had established a small foreign department in 1925 to make overseas contacts and to publicize its freedom struggle. From the late 1920s on, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had a long-standing interest in world affairs among independence leaders, formulated the Congress stance on international issues. As a member of the interim government in 1946, Nehru articulated India's approach to the world.[47]


India's international influence varied over the years after independence. Indian prestige and moral authority were high in the 1950s and facilitated the acquisition of developmental assistance from both East and West. Although the prestige stemmed from India's nonaligned stance, the nation was unable to prevent Cold War politics from becoming intertwined with interstate relations in South Asia. In the 1960s and 1970s, India's international position among developed and developing countries faded in the course of wars with China and Pakistan, disputes with other countries in South Asia, and India's attempt to balance Pakistan's support from the United States and China by signing the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in August 1971. Although India obtained substantial Soviet military and economic aid, which helped to strengthen the nation, India's influence was undercut regionally and internationally by the perception that its friendship with the Soviet Union prevented a more forthright condemnation of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. In the late 1980s, India improved relations with the United States, other developed countries, and China while continuing close ties with the Soviet Union. Relations with its South Asian neighbors, especially Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal, occupied much of the energies of the Ministry of External Affairs.[49]

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, India has forged a closer partnership with Western powers. Shown here are Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with US PresidentBarack Obama in 2009.

In the 1990s, India's economic problems and the demise of the bipolar world political system forced India to reassess its foreign policy and adjust its foreign relations. Previous policies proved inadequate to cope with the serious domestic and international problems facing India. The end of the Cold War gutted the core meaning of nonalignment and left Indian foreign policy without significant direction. The hard, pragmatic considerations of the early 1990s were still viewed within the nonaligned framework of the past, but the disintegration of the Soviet Union removed much of India's international leverage, for which relations with Russia and the other post-Soviet states could not compensate. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, India improved its relations with the United States, CanadaFranceJapan and Germany. In 1992, India established formal diplomatic relations with Israel and this relationship grew during the tenures of the Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP) government and the subsequent UPA(United Progressive Alliance) governments.[50]

In the mid-1990s, India attracted the world attention towards the alleged Pakistan-backed terrorismin Kashmir. The Kargil War resulted in a major diplomatic victory for India. The United States and European Union recognized the fact that Pakistani military had illegally infiltrated into Indian territory and pressurized Pakistan to withdraw from Kargil. Several anti-India militant groups based in Pakistan were labeled as terrorist groups by the United States and European Union.

India has often represented the interests of developing countries at various international platforms. Shown here are Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with Dmitry MedvedevHu Jintao and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during BRIC summit in June, 2009.

In 1998, India tested nuclear weapons for the second time (see Pokhran-II) which resulted in several U.S., Japanese and European sanctions on India. India's then defense minister, George Fernandes, said that India's nuclear program was necessary as it provided a deterrence to potential Chinese nuclear threat. Most of the sanctions imposed on India were removed by 2001.[51]

After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Indian intelligence agencies provided the U.S. with significant information on Al-Qaeda and related groups' activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan. India's extensive contribution to the War on Terrorism, coupled with a surge in its economy, has helped India's diplomatic relations with several countries. Over the past three years, India has held numerous joint military exercises with U.S. and European nations that have resulted in a strengthened U.S.-India and E.U.-India bilateral relationship. India's bilateral trade with Europe and U.S. has more than doubled in the last five years.[52]

India has been pushing for reforms in the UN and WTO with mixed results. India's candidature for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is currently backed by several countries including France, Russia,[53] the United Kingdom,[54] Germany, Japan, Brazil[55] and Australia.[56] In 2004, the United States signed a nuclear co-operation agreement with India even though the latter is not a part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The US argued that India's strong nuclear non-proliferation record made it an exception, however this has not persuaded other Nuclear Suppliers Group members to sign similar deals with India. During a state visit to India in November 2010, US president Barack Obama announced US support for India's bid for permanent membership to UN Security Council[57] as well as India's entry to Nuclear Suppliers GroupWassenaar ArrangementAustralia Group and Missile Technology Control Regime.[58][59]

[edit]Strategic partners

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and Afghan President Hamid Karzai during the 2010SAARC Summit in Bhutan. India promotescounter-terrorism cooperation in South Asia.

India's growing economy, strategic location, friendly foreign policy and large and vibrant diaspora has won it more allies than enemies.[60] India has friendly relations with several countries in the developing world. Though India is not a part of any major military alliance, it has close strategic and military relationship with most of the major powers.

Countries considered India's closest include the Russian Federation,[61] Israel,[62]Afghanistan,[63] FranceNepal,[64] Bhutan [65] and Bangladesh.[66] Russia is the largest supplier of military equipment to India, followed by Israel and France.[67] According to some analysts, Israel is set to overtake Russia as India's largest military and strategic partner.[68]The two countries also collaborate extensively in the sphere of counter-terrorism and space technology.[69] India also enjoys strong military relations with several other countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States,[70] Japan,[71] SingaporeBrazilSouth Africa andItaly.[72] In addition, India operates an airbase in Tajikistan[73] and signed a landmark defense accord with Qatar in 2008.[74]

India has also forged relationships with developing countries, especially South AfricaBrazil,[75]and Mexico.[76] These countries often represent the interests of the developing countries through economic forums such as the G8+5IBSAand WTO. India was seen as one of the standard bearers of the developing world and claimed to speak for a collection of more than 30 other developing nations at the Doha Development Round.[77][78] India's "Look East" Policy has helped it develop greater economic and strategic partnership with Southeast Asian countriesSouth Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. India also enjoys friendly relations with the Persian Gulf countries and most members of the African Union.

[edit]Bilateral and regional relations



Main article: Indo-Afghan relations

Bilateral relations between India and Afghanistan have been traditionally strong and friendly. While India was the only South Asian country to recognize the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s, its relations were diminished during the Afghan civil wars and the rule of the Islamist Taliban in the 1990s.[79] India aided the overthrow of the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aid.[63][80]

The new democratically-elected Afghan government strengthened its ties with India in wake of persisting tensions and problems with Pakistan, which was suspected of continuing to shelter and support the Taliban.[63][80] India pursues a policy of close cooperation to bolster its standing as a regional power and contain its rival Pakistan, which it maintains is supporting Islamic militants in Kashmir and other parts of India.[63] India is the largest regional investor in Afghanistan, having committed more than US$2.2 billion for reconstruction purposes.[81]


Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with Bangladesh's founding father Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1972. Gandhi passionately supported Bangladesh's freedom strugglefrom Pakistan in 1971.

Both states are part of the Indian subcontinent and have had a long common cultural, economic and political history. India played a crucial part in Bangladesh's independence from Pakistan. In recent years India provides co-operation and assistance during annual natural calamities. India is largest exporter to Bangladesh. Most of differences are of sharing water resources between the two countries such as Ganges , where India diverse Ganges water to Calcutta through Farakka Barrage.


Historically,there have been close ties with India. Both countries signed a Friendship treaty in 1949, where India would assist Bhutan in foreign relations. On February 8, 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was substantially revised under the Bhutanese King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. Whereas in the Treaty of 1949 Article 2 read as "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan. On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations."

In the revised treaty it now reads as, "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other." The revised treaty also includes in it the preamble "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity", an element that was absent in the earlier version. The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007 strengthens Bhutan's status as an independent and sovereign nation.

Tata Power is building a hydro-electric dam. This dam will greatly develop the Bhutanese economy by providing employment, and by selling electricity to India and fulfilling India's burgeoning energy needs. Due to this dam Bhutan's economy grew 20%, the second highest growth rate in the world.


Main article: Indo-Burmese relations

India was one of the leading supporters of Burmese independence and established diplomatic relations after Burma's independence fromGreat Britain in 1948. For many years, Indo-Burmese relations were strong due to cultural links, flourishing commerce, common interests in regional affairs and the presence of a significant Indian community in Burma.[82] India provided considerable support when Burma struggled with regional insurgencies. However, the overthrow of the democratic government by the Military of Burma led to strains in ties. Along with much of the world, India condemned the suppression of democracy and Burma ordered the expulsion of the Burmese Indian community, increasing its own isolation from the world.[82][83] Only China maintained close links with Burma while India supported the pro-democracy movement.[82][84][85]

However, due to geo-political concerns, India revived its relations and recognised the new name of Myanmar in 1993 overcoming strains overdrug trafficking, the suppression of democracy and the rule of the military junta in Burma. Burma is situated to the south of the states ofMizoramManipurNagaland and Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. and the proximity of the People's Republic of China gives strategic importance to Indo-Burmese relations. The Indo-Burmese border stretches over 1,600 miles and some insurgents in North-east India seek refuge in Myanmar. Consequently, India has been keen on increasing military cooperation with Myanmar in its counter-insurgency activities. In 2001, the Indian Army completed the construction of a major road along its border with Myanmar. India has also been building major roads, highways, ports and pipelines within Myanmar in an attempt to increase its strategic influence in the region and also to counter China's growing strides in the Indochina peninsula. Indian companies have also sought active participation in oil and natural gas exploration in Myanmar.In February 2007, India announced a plan to develop the Sittwe port, which would enable ocean access from Indian Northeastern states like Mizoram, via the Kaladan River.

India is a major customer of Myanmarese oil and gas. In 2007, Indian exports to Myanmar totaled US$185 million, while its imports from Myanmar were valued at around US$810 million, consisting mostly of oil and gas.[86] India has granted US$100 million credit to fund highway infrastructure projects in Myanmar, while US$ 57 million has been offered to upgrade Myanmarese railways. A further US$27 million in grants has been pledged for road and rail projects.[87] India is one of the few countries that has provided military assistance to the Myanmarese junta.[88] However, there has been increasing pressure on India to cut some of its military supplies to Myanmar.[89] Relations between the two remain close which was evident in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis, when India was one of the few countries whose relief and rescue aid proposals were accepted by Myanmar's ruling junta.[90]


Main article: Sino-Indian relations
A Chinese container ship unloads cargo at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port in India. Bilateral trade between the two countries is expected to surpass US$60 billion by 2010 making China the single largest trading partner of India.[91]

Despite lingering suspicions remaining from the 1962 Sino-Indian War and continuing boundary disputes over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, Sino-Indian relations have improved gradually since 1988. Both countries have sought to reduce tensions along the frontier, expand trade and cultural ties, and normalize relations.

A series of high-level visits between the two nations have helped improve relations. In December 1996, PRC President Jiang Zemin visited India during a tour of South Asia. While in New Delhi, he signed with the Indian Prime Minister a series of confidence-building measures for the disputed borders. Sino-Indian relations suffered a brief setback in May 1998 when the Indian Defence minister justified the country's nuclear tests by citing potential threats from the PRC. However, in June 1999, during the Kargil crisis, then-External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh visited Beijing and stated that India did not consider China a threat. By 2001, relations between India and the PRC were on the mend, and the two sides handled the move from Tibet to India of the 17th Karmapa in January 2000 with delicacy and tact. In 2003, India formally recognized Tibet as a part of China, and China recognized Sikkim as a formal part of India in 2004.

Since 2004, the economic rise of both China and India has also helped forge closer relations between the two. Sino-Indian trade reached US$36 billion in 2007, making China the single largest trading partner of India.[92] The increasing economic reliance between India and China has also bought the two nations closer politically, with both India and China eager to resolve their boundary dispute.[93] They have also collaborated on several issues ranging from WTO's Doha round in 2008[94] to regional free trade agreement.[95] Similar to Indo-US nuclear deal, India and China have also agreed to cooperate in the field of civilian nuclear energy.[96]However, China's economic interests have clashed with those of India. Both the countries are the largest Asian investors in Africa[97] and have competed for control over its large natural resources.[98]


India enjoys a considerable influence over Maldives' foreign policy and provides extensive security co-operation especially after the Operation Cactus in 1988 during which India repelled Tamil mercenaries who invaded the country. As founder member in 1985 of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, SAARC, which brings together Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, the country plays a very active role in SAARC. The Maldives has taken the lead in calling for a South Asian Free Trade Agreement, the formulation of a Social Charter, the initiation of informal political consultations in SAARC forums, the lobbying for greater action on environmental issues, the proposal of numerous human rights measures such as the regional convention on child rights and for setting up a SAARC Human Rights Resource Centre. The Maldives is also an advocate of greater international profile for SAARC such as through formulating common positions at the UN. But the Maldives claims the Indian-administered territory of Minicoy as part of its country, that is inhabited by Muslims.

India is starting the process to bring the island country into India's security grid. The move comes after the moderate Islamic nation approached New Delhi earlier this year over fears that one of its island resorts could be taken over by terrorists given its lack of military assets and surveillance capabilities.[99] India is also signing an agreement later this year which includes following things.

  • India will permanently base two helicopters in the country to enhance its surveillance capabilities and ability to respond swiftly to threats. One helicopter from the Coast Guard is likely to be handed over during Antony's visit while another from the Navy will be cleared for transfer shortly.
  • Maldives has coastal radars on only two of its 26 atolls. India will help set up radars on all 26 for seamless coverage of approaching vessels and aircraft.
  • The coastal radar chain in Maldives will be networked with the Indian coastal radar system. India has already undertaken a project to install radars along its entire coastline. The radar chains of the two countries will be interlinked and a central control room in India's Coastal Command will get a seamless radar picture.
  • The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) will carry out regular Dornier sorties over the island nation to look out for suspicious movements or vessels. The Southern Naval Command will overlook the inclusion of Maldives into the Indian security grid.
  • Military teams from Maldives will visit the tri-services Andaman Nicobar Command (ANC) to observe how India manages security and surveillance of the critical island chain.


Main article: Indo-Nepal relations

Relations between India and Nepal are close yet fraught with difficulties stemming from geography, economics, the problems inherent in big power-small power relations, and common ethnic and linguistic identities that overlap the two countries' borders. In 1950 New Delhi andKathmandu initiated their intertwined relationship with the Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian soil. The 1950 treaty and letters stated that "neither government shall tolerate any threat to the security of the other by a foreign aggressor" and obligated both sides "to inform each other of any serious friction or misunderstanding with any neighboring state likely to cause any breach in the friendly relations subsisting between the two governments." These accords cemented a "special relationship" between India and Nepal that granted Nepal preferential economic treatment and provided Nepalese in India the same economic and educational opportunities as Indian citizens.


Former Indian PM Nehru with then Pakistani PM Muhammad Ali Bogra in 1953.

Despite historical, cultural and ethnic links between them, relations between India and Pakistan have been plagued by years of mistrust and suspicion ever since the partition of India in 1947. The principal source of contention between India and its western neighbour has been the Kashmir conflict. After an invasion by Pashtun tribesmen and Pakistani paramilitary forces, the Hindu Maharaja of the Dogra Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, and its Muslim Prime Minister, Sheikh Abdullah, signed an Instrument of Accession with New Delhi. The First Kashmir War started after the Indian Army entered Srinagar, the capital of the state, to secure the area from the invading forces. The war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control dividing the erstwhile princely state into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and western areas) and India (southern, central and northeastern areas). Pakistan contested the legality of the Instrument of Accession since the Dogra Kingdom has signed a standstill agreement with it. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 started following the failure of Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides. It ended in a United Nations (UN) mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. India and Pakistan went to war again in 1971, however this time the conflict was over East Pakistan rather than Kashmir. Due to the large-scale atrocities committed by the Pakistan army, millions of Bengali refugees poured over into India. India, along with Mukti Bahini, defeated Pakistan and the Pakistani forces surrendered on the eastern front. The war resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.

In 1998, India carried out the Pokhran-II nuclear tests which was followed by Pakistan's Chagai-I tests. Following the Lahore Declaration in February 1999, relations briefly improved. However, few months later, Kashmiri insurgents and Pakistani paramilitary forces, backed byPakistani Army, infiltrated in large numbers into the Kargil district of Indian Kashmir. This initiated the Kargil conflict after India moved in thousands of troops to successfully flush out the infiltrators. Though the conflict did not result in a full-scale war between India and Pakistan, relations between the two reached all-time low which worsened even further following Pakistan's alleged involvement in the hijacking of theIndian Airlines IC814 plane in December 1999. Attempts to normalize relations, such as the Agra summit held in July 2001, failed. Following the attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001, which was blamed on Pakistan, a country which had condemned the attack.[100]There was a military standoff between the two countries which lasted for nearly a year raising fears of a nuclear conflict. However, a peace process, initiated in 2003, led to improved relations in the following years.

Since the initiation of peace process, several confidence-building-measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan have taken shape. TheSamjhauta Express and Delhi–Lahore Bus service are one of these successful measures which have played a crucial role in expanding people to people contact between the two countries.[101] The initiation of Srinagar–Muzaffarabad Bus service in 2005 and opening of a historic trade route across the Line of Control in 2008 further reflects increasing eagerness among the two sides to improve relations. Though bilateral trade between India and Pakistan was a modest US$1.7 billion in March 2007, it is expected to cross US$10 billion by 2010. In the Kashmir earthquake in 2005, India sent aid to affected areas in Pakistani Kashmir & Punjab as well as Indian Kashmir.[102]

The recent terror attacks in Mumbai, however, have seriously undermined the relations between the two countries. India is alleging Pakistan of harboring militants on their soil, while Pakistan vehemently denies such claims. Relations are currently hampered since India has sent a list of 40 alleged fugitive in various terror strikes to Pakistan, expecting the handover of the said 40 people to the Indian Government. Pakistan, on the other hand, has openly declared to be having no intentions whatsoever of doing the above said extradition.

[edit]Sri Lanka

Bilateral relations between Sri Lanka and India have been generally friendly, but were controversially affected by the on-going Sri Lankan civil war and by the failure of Indian intervention during the Sri Lankan civil war. India is the only neighbor of Sri Lanka, separated by the Palk Strait; both nations occupy a strategic position in South Asia and have sought to build a common security umbrella in the Indian Ocean.[103]

India-Sri Lanka relations have undergone a qualitative and quantitative transformation in the recent past. Political relations are close, trade and investments have increased dramatically, infrastructural linkages are constantly being augmented, defence collaboration has increased and there is a general, broad-based improvement across all sectors of bilateral cooperation. India was the first country to respond to Sri Lanka's request for assistance after the tsunami in December 2004. In July 2006, India evacuated 430 Sri Lankan nationals from Lebanon, first to Cyprus by Indian Navy ships and then to Delhi & Colombo by special Air India flights.

There exists a broad consensus within the Sri Lankan polity on the primacy of India in Sri Lanka's external relations matrix. Both the major political parties in Sri Lanka, viz., the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the United Nationalist Party have contributed to the rapid development of bilateral relations in the last ten years. Sri Lanka has supported India's candidature to the permanent membership of the UN Security Council.[104]



The strongest ties between these two states is the commonwealth connection. Cricketing and Bollywood ties also help foster relations as in the frequent travel for games, and, more importantly, the presence of Australian cricketers in India for commercial gain. This was further enhanced with the IPL, and, to a lesser degree, the ICL. Bollywood has also improved ties as with John Howard's visit to Mumbai to increase tourism to Australia.[105] Furthermore, there is a going strategic connection to forming an "Asian NATO" with India, Japan, the US and Australia.[106] The bilateral agreements have worked out for all but the Indo-Australian angle, though this has been hurt by India's refusal to sign the NPT and Australia's consequent refusal to provide India with uranium until the latter do so. The Australian and Indian militaries have already worked well together. Of late the relations between the two countries were jolted, with attacks on Indian Community students in Melbourne, Australia. Indian Government lodged strong protests with the Australian Government. Australian Prime Minister Mr. Kevin Rudd said that "Australia valued its education system and International Students are valued more here in Australia." Mr. Rudd though said that his Govt. has ordered a thorough probe into the attacks and also condemned it in strongest possible terms no significant break through has been achieved.[107][108]


Main article: Fiji–India relations

Fijis relationship with the Republic of India is often seen by observers against the backdrop of the sometimes tense relations between itsindigenous people and the 44 percent of the population who are of Indian descent. India has used its influence in international forums such as the Commonwealth of Nations and United Nations on behalf of ethnic Indians in Fiji, lobbying for sanctions against Fiji in the wake of the 1987 coups and the 2000 coup, both of which removed governments, one dominated and one led, by Indo-Fijians.


Two Japanese Naval warships took part in Malabar 2007 off India's western coast, one of the few such multilateral exercises Japan has ever taken part in symbolizing close military cooperation between India and Japan.

India-Japan relations have always been strong. India has culturally influenced Japan throughBuddhism. During the Indian Independence Movement, the Japanese Imperial Army helped Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose's Indian National Army. Relations have remained warm since India's independence. Japanese companies, like SonyToyota, and Honda, have manufacturing facilities in India, and with the growth of the Indian economy, India is a big market for Japanese firms. The most prominent Japanese company to have a big investment in India is automobiles giant Suzukiwhich is in partnership with Indian automobiles company Maruti Suzuki, the largest car manufacturer in India. Honda is also a partner in "Hero Honda", one of the largest motor cycle sellers in the world. In December 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to Japanculminated in the signing of the "Joint Statement Towards Japan-India Strategic and Global Partnership". Japan has funded some major infrastructure projects in India, most notably the Delhi Metro subway system. Indian applicants were welcomed in 2006 to the JET Program, starting with just one slot available in 2006 and 41 in 2007. Also, in 2007, the Japanese Self Defence Forcestook part in a naval exercise in the Indian Ocean, known as Malabar 2007, which also involved the naval forces of India, AustraliaSingapore and the United States.

In October 2008, Japan signed an agreement with India under which it would grant the latter a low-interest loan worth US$4.5 billion to construct a high-speed rail line between Delhi and Mumbai. This is the single largest overseas project being financed by Japan and reflects growing economic partnership between the two.[109] India is also one of three countries with whom Japan has security pact, the other being Australia and the United States.[110]


In recent years, India has endeavoured to build relations, with this small Southeast Asian nation. They have strong military relations, andIndia shall be building an Airforce Academy in Laos.[111]


A long history of common links connect both nations from ancient times. In 1950, the first President of Indonesia – Sukarno called upon the peoples of Indonesia and India to "intensify the cordial relations" that had existed between the two countries "for more than 1000 years" before they had been "disrupted" by colonial powers.[112] Fifteen years later in Djakarta, government-inspired mobs were shouting: "Down with India, the servant of imperialists" and "Crush India, our enemy. "[113] Yet in the spring of 1966, the foreign ministers of both countries began speaking again of an era of friendly relations. India had supported Indonesian independence and Nehru had raised the Indonesian question in the United Nations Security Council. Today, India has an embassy in Jakarta [114] and Indonesia operates an embassy in Delhi.[115]


India has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a high commission in New Delhi. Both countries are full members of theCommonwealth of Nations, and the Asian Union. India and Malaysia are also connected by various cultural and historical ties that date back to antiquity. The two countries are on excellently friendly terms with each other seeing as Malaysia is home to a strong concentration of Indian immigrants.Mahathir bin Mohamad the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malayasia is of Indian origin, his father Mohamad Iskandar, was a Malayalee Muslim (who migrated from Kerala) and his mother Wan Tampawan, was Malay.[116]


Singapore Navy frigate RSS Formidable(68) steams alongside the Indian Navyfrigate INS Brahmaputra (F 31) in the Bay of Bengal. Singapore is one of India's strongest allies in South East Asia.

India and Singapore share long-standing cultural, commercial and strategic relations, with Singapore being a part of the "Greater India" cultural and commercial region. More than 300,000 people of Indian origin live in Singapore. Following its independence in 1965, Singapore was concerned with China-backed communist threats as well as domination from Malaysia andIndonesia and sought a close strategic relationship with India, which it saw as a counter-balance to Chinese influence and a partner in achieving regional security.[117] Singapore had always been an important strategic trading post, giving India trade access to Maritime Southeast Asia and theFar East. Although the rival positions of both nations over the Vietnam War and the Cold Warcaused consternation between India and Singapore, their relationship expanded significantly in the 1990s;[117] Singapore was one of the first to respond to India's "Look East" Policy of expanding its economic, cultural and strategic ties in Southeast Asia to strengthen its standing as a regional power.[117] Singapore, and especially, the Singaporean Foreign Minister, George Yeo, have taken an interest, in re-establishing the ancient Indian university, Nalanda University.

Singapore is the 8th largest source of investment in India and the largest amongst ASEAN member nations.[117][118] It is also India's 9th biggest trading partner as of 2005–06.[117] Its cumulative investment in India totals USD 3 billion as of 2006 and is expected to rise to US 5 billion by 2010 and US 10 billion by 2015.[117][119][120] India's economic liberalisation and its "Look East" policy have led to a major expansion in bilateral trade, which grew from USD 2.2 billion in 2001 to US 9–10 billion in 2006 – a 400% growth in span of five years – and to USD 50 billion by 2010.[117][119][120] Singapore accounts for 38% of India's trade with ASEAN member nations and 3.4% of its total foreign trade.[117] India's main exports to Singapore in 2005 included petroleum, gemstones, jewellery, machinery and its imports from Singapore included electronic goods, organic chemicals and metals. More than half of Singapore's exports to India are basically "re-exports" – items that had been imported from India.[117][118]

[edit]South Korea

Tata Daewoo, a subsidiary of India's Tata Motors, is the second largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in South Korea. India and South Korea have made large direct foreign investments in each other.

The cordial relationship between the two countries extends back to 48AD, when Queen Suro, or Princess Heo, travelled from the kingdom of Ayodhya to Korea.[121] According to the Samguk Yusa, the princess had a dream about a heavenly king who was awaiting heaven's anointed ride. After Princess Heo had the dream, she asked her parents, the king and queen, for permission to set out and seek the man, which the king and queen urged with the belief that god orchestrated the whole fate.[122] Upon approval, she set out on a boat, carrying gold, silver, a tea plant, and a stone which calmed the waters.[121] Archeologists discovered a stone with two fish kissing each other, a symbol of the Gaya kingdom that is unique to the Mishra royal family in Ayodhya, India. This royal link provides further evidence that there was an active commercial engagements between India and Korea since the queen's arrival to Korea.[121] Current descendants live in the city of Kimhae as well as abroad in America's state of New Jersey and Kentucky. Many of them became prominent and well-known around the world like President Kim Dae Jung, Prime Minister Jong Pil Kim.

The relations between the countries have been relatively limited, although much progress arose during the three decades. Since the formal establishment of the diplomatic ties between two countries in 1973, several trade agreements have been reached. Trade between the two nations has increased exponentially, exemplified by the $530 million during the fiscal year of 1992–1993, and the $10 billion during 2006–2007.[123] During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, South Korean businesses sought to increase access to the global markets, and began trade investments with India.[123] The last two presidential visits from South Korea to India were in 1996 and 2006,[124] and the embassy works between the two countries are seen as needing improvements.[125] Recently, there have been acknowledgements in the Korean public and political spheres that expanding relations with India should be a major economical and political priority for South Korea. Much of the economic investments of South Korea have been drained into China;[126] however, South Korea is currently the fifth largest source of investment in India.[127] To the Times of IndiaPresident Roh voiced his opinion that cooperation between India's software and Korea's IT industries would bring very efficient and successful outcomes.[124] The two countries agreed to shift their focus to the revision of the visa policies between the two countries, expansion of trade, and establishment of free trade agreement to encourage further investment between the two countries. Korean companies such as LG and Samsung have established manufacturing and service facilities in India, and several Korean construction companies won grants for a portion of the many infrastructural building plans in India, such as the "National Highway Development Project".[127] Tata Motor's purchase of Daewoo Commercial Vehicles at the cost of $102 million highlights the India's investments in Korea, which consist mostly of subcontracting.[127]

Chinese Expedition Army (now Republic of China Army) boarding planes for India.


The bilateral relations between India and Taiwan (officially Republic of China) have improved since the 1990s despite both nations not maintaining official diplomatic relations,[85][127] India recognizes only the People's Republic of China and not the Republic of China's contention of being the legitimate government of territorial China – a conflict that emerged after the Chinese Civil War(1945–49). However, India's economic & Commercial links as well as people-to-people contacts with Taiwan have expanded in recent years.[127]


India's Look East policy, saw India grow relations with ASEAN countries including Thailand, andThailand's Look West policy, also saw it grow its relations with India. Both countries are members of BIMSTEC. Indian Prime Ministers Rajiv GandhiP.V. Narasimha RaoAtal Bihari Vajpayee, and Manmohan Singh, have visited Thailand as have, Chatichai ChoonhavanThaksin Shinawatra, and Surayud Chulanont, visited India. In 2003, a Free trade agreement was signed between the two countries. India, is the 13th largest investor in Thailand. The spheres of trade are in chemicalspharmaceuticalstextilesnylon, tyre cord, real estate, rayon fibres, paper grade pulps, steel wires, and rods. However, IT Services, and manufacturing, are the main spheres. Through BuddhismIndia, has culturally influenced Thailand. The Indian epics, Mahabharata, and Ramayana, are popular and are widely taught in schools as part of the curriculum inThailand. The example can also be seen in temples around Thailand, where the story of Ramayana and renowned Indian folk stories are depicted on the temple wall. Thailand, has become a big tourist destination for Indians.


India supported Vietnam's independence from France, opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and supported unification of Vietnam. India established official diplomatic relations in 1972 and maintained friendly relations, especially in wake of Vietnam's hostile relations with the People's Republic of China, which had become India's strategic rival.[128]

India granted the "Most Favoured Nation" status to Vietnam in 1975[128] and both nations signed a bilateral trade agreement in 1978 and the Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (BIPPA) on March 8, 1997.[129] In 2007, a fresh joint declaration was issued during the state visit of the Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung.[130] Bilateral trade has increased rapidly since the liberalisation of the economies of both Vietnam and India.[128] India is the 13th-largest exporter to Vietnam, with exports have grown steadily from USD 11.5 million in 1985–86 to USD 395.68 million by 2003.[129] Vietnam's exports to India rose to USD 180 million, including agricultural products, handicrafts, textiles, electronics and other goods.[131] Between 2001 and 2006, the volume of bilateral trade expanded at 20–30% per annum to reach USD 1 billion by 2006.[132][133] Continuing the rapid pace of growth, bilateral trade is expected to rise to USD 2 billion by 2008, 2 years ahead of the official target.[133][134] India and Vietnam have also expanded cooperation in information technology, education and collaboration of the respective national space programmes.[130] Direct air links and lax visa regulations have been established to bolster tourism.[135]

India and Vietnam are members of the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation, created to develop to enhance close ties between India and nations of Southeast Asia. Vietnam has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council and join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).[136] In the 2003 joint declaration, India and Vietnam envisaged creating an "Arc of Advantage and Prosperity" in Southeast Asia;[130] to this end, Vietnam has backed a more important relationship and role between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its negotiation of an Indo-ASEAN free trade agreement.[128][130] India and Vietnam have also built strategic partnerships, including extensive cooperation on developing nuclear power, enhancing regional security and fighting terrorism, transnational crime and drug trafficking.[85][130][131]


India's commonalities with developing nations in Latin America, especially Brazil and Mexico have continued to grow. India and Brazil continue to work together on the reform of Security Council through the G4 nations while have also increased strategic and economic cooperation through the IBSA Dialogue Forum. The process of finalizing Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) with MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay) is on the itinerary and negotiations are being held with Chile.[137] Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was the guest of honour at the 2004 Republic Day celebrations in New Delhi.[138]

(L-R): Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, President of Argentina, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner and President Pratibha Patil atRashtrapati Bhawan.


Formal relations between both the countries were first established in 1949. India has an embassy in Buenos Aires and Argentina has an embassy in New Delhi. The current Indian Ambassador to Argentina (concurrently acreditted to Uruguay and Paraguay) is Mr. R Viswanathan.


A group called the Filhos de Gandhi (Sons of Gandhi) participates regularly in the carnival in Salvador. Private Brazilian organizations occasionally invite Indian cultural troupes.

In recent years,[when?] relations between Brazil and India have grown considerably and co-operation between the two countries has been extended to such diverse areas as science and technology, pharmaceuticals and space. The two-way trade in 2007 nearly tripled to US$ 3.12 billion from US$ 1.2 billion in 2004. India attaches tremendous importance to its relationship with this Latin American giant and hopes to see the areas of co-operation expand in the coming years.

Both countries want the participation of developing countries in the UNSC permanent membership since the underlying philosophy for both of them are: UNSC should be more democratic, legitimate and representative – the G4 is a novel grouping for this realization. Brazil and India are deeply committed to IBSA (South-South cooperation) initiatives and attach utmost importance to this trilateral cooperation between the three large, multi-ethnic, multi-racial and multi-religious developing countries, which are bound by the common principle of pluralism and democracy.

Flag Commander of Western Fleet of Indian Navy while briefing a press conference on a joint Indo-Canadian naval exercise.


Indo-Canadian relations, are the longstanding bilateral relations between India and Canada, which are built upon a "mutual commitment to democracy", "pluralism", and "people-to-people links," according to the government of Canada. In 2004, bilateral trade between India and Canada was at about C$2.45 billion. However, the botched handling of the Air India investigation and the case in general suffered a setback to Indo-Canadian relations. India's Smiling Buddha nuclear test led to connections between the two countries being frozen, with allegations that India broke the terms of the Colombo Plan. Although Jean Chrétien and Roméo LeBlanc both visited India in the late 1990s, relations were again halted after the Pokhran-II tests.


Both countries established diplomatic ties on January 19, 1959. Since then the relationship between the two countries has been gradually increasing with more frequent diplomatic visits to promote political, commercial cultural and academic exchanges. Colombia is currently the commercial point of entry into Latin America for Indian companies.[140]


Mexico is a very important and major economic partner of India. Mexico and India, both have embassies in the other country. Octavio Pazworked as a diplomat in India. His book In Light of India is an analysis of Indian history and culture.[141]

See also Hinduism in Mexico


India and Paraguay established diplomatic relations on September 13, 1961.[citation needed] India is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos AiresArgentina and an honorary consulate in Asuncion. Since 2005, Paraguay has had an embassy in New Delhi.[citation needed]

[edit]United States of America

Main article: Indo-U.S. relations

Historically, relations between India and the United States were lukewarm following Indian independence, as India took a leading position in the Non-Aligned Movement, and attempted to pursue even-handed economic and military relations with the Soviet Union, although US provided support to India in 1962 during its war with China. For most of the Cold War, the USA tended to have warmer relations with Pakistan, primarily as a way to contain Soviet-friendly India and to use Pakistan to back the Afghan Mujahideen against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. An Indo-Soviet twenty year friendship treaty, signed in 1971, also positioned India against the USA.

[edit]Cold War era

India played a key role in establishing the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Though India pursued close relations with both USA and USSR, it decided not to join any major power bloc and refrained from joining military alliances. India, however began establishing close military relationship with the Soviet Union.

After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India made considerable changes to its foreign policy. It developed a close relationship with the Soviet Union and started receiving massive military equipment and financial assistance from the USSR. This had an adverse effect on the Indo-USA relationship. The United States saw Pakistan as a counter-weight to pro-Soviet India and started giving the former military assistance. This created an atmosphere of suspicion between India and USA. The USA-India relationship suffered a considerable setback during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan when India openly supported the Soviet Union.

President of United States Of AmericaRichard Nixon and Prime Minister of IndiaIndira Gandhi in 1971. They had a deep personal antipathy that colored bilateral relations.

Relations between India and the United States came to an all-time low during the early 1970s. Despite reports of atrocities in East Pakistan, and being told, most notably in the Blood telegram, of genocidal activities being perpetrated by Pakistani forces, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and U.S. President Richard Nixon did nothing to discourage then Pakistani PresidentYahya Khan and the Pakistan Army. Kissinger was particularly concerned about Soviet expansion into South Asia as a result of a treaty of friendship that had recently been signed between India and the Soviet Union, and sought to demonstrate to the People's Republic of China the value of a tacit alliance with the United States.[142] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971Indian Armed Forces, along with the Mukti Bahini, succeeded in liberating East Pakistan which soon declared independence. Richard Nixon, then USA President, feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tacit ally, China. In order to demonstrate to China the bona fides of the United States as an ally, and in direct violation of the USA Congress-imposed sanctions on Pakistan, Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan, routing them through Jordan and Iran,[143] while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan.

When Pakistan's defeat in the eastern sector seemed certain, Nixon sent the USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal, a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat. The Enterprise arrived on station on December 11, 1971. On 6 December and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, from Vladivostok; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74into the Indian Ocean from 18 December 1971 until 7 January 1972. The Soviets also sent a nuclear submarine to ward off the threat posed by USS Enterprise in the Indian Ocean.[144]

Though American efforts had no effect in turning the tide of the war, the incident involving USS Enterprise is viewed as the trigger for India's subsequent nuclear program.[145] American policy towards the end of the war was dictated primarily by a need to restrict the escalation of war on the western sector to prevent the 'dismemberment' of West Pakistan.[146] Years after the war, many American writers criticized the White House policies during the war as being badly flawed and ill-serving the interests of the United States.[147] India carried out nuclear tests a few years later resulting in sanctions being imposed by United States, further drifting the two countries apart. In recent years, Kissinger came under fire for comments made during the Indo-Pakistan War in which he described Indians as "bastards."[148] Kissinger has since expressed his regret over the comments.[149]

[edit]Post Cold War era

Since the end of the Cold War, India-USA relations have improved dramatically. This has largely been fostered by the fact that the USA and India are both democracies and have a large and growing trade relationship. During the Gulf War, the economy of India went through an extremely difficult phase. The Government of India liberalized the Indian economy. After the break up of the Soviet Union, India started looking for new allies and tried improving diplomatic relations with the members of the NATO particularly the United States, CanadaFrance andGermany. In 1992, India established formal diplomatic relations with Israel.

[edit]Pokhran tests

In 1998, India tested nuclear weapons which resulted in several U.S., Japanese and European sanctions on India. India's then defence minister, George Fernandes, said that India's nuclear program was necessary as it provided a deterrence to some potential nuclear threat. Most of the sanctions imposed on India were removed by 2001. India has categorically stated that it will never use weapons first but will defend if attacked. In fact Pakistan is the first country that India informs if any nuclear tests are on the agenda.

The economic sanctions imposed by the United States in response to India's nuclear tests in May 1998 appeared, at least initially, to seriously damage Indo-American relations. President Bill Clinton imposed wide-ranging sanctions pursuant to the 1994 Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act. U.S. sanctions on Indian entities involved in the nuclear industry and opposition to international financial institution loans for non-humanitarian assistance projects in India. The United States encouraged India to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) immediately and without condition. The U.S. also called for restraint in missile and nuclear testing and deployment by both India and Pakistan. The non-proliferation dialogue initiated after the 1998 nuclear tests has bridged many of the gaps in understanding between the countries.

Further information: Pokhran-II
[edit]Post-September 11 attacks

After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Indian intelligence agencies provided the U.S. with significant information on Al-Qaeda and related groups' activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan. India's extensive contribution to the War on Terrorism has helped India's diplomatic relations with several countries. Over the past few years, India has held numerous joint military exercises with U.S. and European nations that have resulted in a strengthened U.S.-India and E.U.-India bilateral relationship. India's bilateral trade with Europe and U.S. has more than doubled in the last five years.

However, India has not signed the CTBT, or the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, claiming the discriminatory nature of the treaty that allows the five declared nuclear countries of the world to keep their nuclear arsenal and develop it using computer simulation testing. Prior to its nuclear testing, India had pressed for a comprehensive destruction of nuclear weapons by all countries of the world in a time-bound frame. This was not acceptable to the USA and other countries. Presently, India has declared its policy of "no-first use of nuclear weapons" and the maintenance of a "credible nuclear deterrence". The USA, under President George W. Bush has also lifted most of its sanctions on India and has resumed military co-operation. Relations with USA have considerably improved in the recent years, with the two countries taking part in joint naval exercises off the coast of India and joint air exercises both in India as well as in the United States.[150][151][152]

India has been pushing for reforms in the UN and WTO with mixed results. India's candidature for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is currently backed by several countries including United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Brazil, African Union nations and recently People's Republic of China. In 2005, the United States signed a nuclear co-operation agreement with India even though the latter is not a part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The US argued that India's strong nuclear non-proliferation record made it an exception and persuaded other Nuclear Suppliers Group members to sign similar deals with India.

On March 2, 2006 India and the USA signed the Indo-U.S. Nuclear Pact on co-operation in civilian nuclear field. This was signed during the four days state visit of USA President George Bush in India. On its part, India would separate its civilian and military nuclear programs, and the civilian programs would be brought under the safeguards of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The United States would sell India the reactor technologies and the nuclear fuel for setting up and upgrading its civilian nuclear program. The U.S. Congress needs to ratify this pact since U.S. federal law prohibits the trading of nuclear technologies and materials outside the framework of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).

[edit]Indo-USA strategic partnership
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with President Barack Obama at the White House.

Indo-USA relations got strategic content in the early 1960s. The rise of China worried the policymakers in Washington. Chinese assertion in Tibet, its role in Korean war and other such acts concerned Washington. As the relations between India and China deteriorated during late fifties, the Americans found a golden opportunity to take advantage of this situation to promote India as a counterweight to China.[153] But any unidimensional alliance is bound to be short-lived and this alliance was no exception to this general rule. As China ceased to be a headache for the American policymakers by the late sixties, this unidimensional alliance disappeared into thin air.

The end of the Cold War necessitated as well as facilitated the infusion of strategic content to Indo-USA relations–this time multidimensional. In the post Cold War era, the strategic objectives of India and the USA converges on a number of issues and not just one–as well as the case earlier. These issues include, inter alia, containment of terrorism, promotion of democracy, counter proliferation, freedom of navigation in the Indian Ocean, Asian balance of power, etc.[34]

One of the very interesting feature of Indo-USA relations of recent times is the changes on the terms of engagement between the two countries on the issue of nuclear proliferation. While earlier, in the USA strategic thinking on nuclear proliferation, India figured mainly because of American concern about latter's nuclear and missile programmes, in the twenty-first century, however, American strategic thinking on the issue of nuclear proliferation has undergone radical reorientation. Now, the Americans are increasingly realising the futility of insisting on a rollback of India's nuclear programme. They, rather, want to leverage India's growing power and influence in favour of their broader nonproliferation and counter proliferation objectives.[154]

As promotion of democracy around the world is one of the most important foreign policy objective of the USA, India – as the largest democracy of the world-can hardly be ignored by the USA. This is the reason, cooperation in promotion of democracy in the world has become one of the most important facets of Indo-USA relations in recent times. India is a founding member of the 'Community of Democracies' – a prominent endeavour of the USA on promotion of democracy. However, India rejected the suggestion of the USA about setting up a Centre for Asian Democracy.[155]

Agriculture is another important area of cooperation between India and the USA in present times. Considering the fact that both the nations at present have a vast pool of human resources adept atknowledge economy, it is only natural that the most optimal course such partnership can aim at is harnessing these human resources by concentrating on development and dissemination of agricultural knowledge through research, education and training etc. An initiative to forge such a partnership is the 'India-USA Knowledge Initiative on Agriculture' (KIA).[156]

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was the guest of honor at the first state dinner, which took place on November 24, 2009, of the administration of US President Barack Obama. Obama later visited India from November 6–9, 2010, signing numerous trade and defence agreements with India. He addressed the joint session of the Indian parliament in New Delhi, becoming only the second US President to do so, and announced that the United States would lend it's support to India's bid for a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, signifying the growing strategic dimension of the relationship between the world's two largest democracies.[157]


[edit]European Union

G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy in Washington, D.C.

India was one of the first countries to develop relations with the Union, signing bilateral agreements in 1973, when the United Kingdom joined. The most recent cooperation agreement was signed in 1994 and an action plan was signed in 2005. As of April 2007 the Commission is pursuing a free trade agreement with India.[158]

The Union is India's largest trading partner, accounting for 20% of Indian trade. However, India accounts for only 1.8% of the EU's trade and attracts only 0.3% of European Foreign Direct Investment, although still provides India's largest source. During 2005 EU-India trade grew by 20.3%.[159]

There was controversy in 2006 when the Indian Mittal Steel Company sought to take-over the Luxembourg based steel company, Arcelor. The approach met with opposition from France and Luxembourg but was passed by the Commission who stated that were judging it on competition grounds only.[160]

The European Union (EU) and India agreed on September 29, 2008 at the EU-India summit in Marseille, France's largest commercial port, to expand their cooperation in the fields of nuclear energy and environmental protection and deepen their strategic partnership. French PresidentNicolas Sarkozy, the EU's rotating president, said at a joint press conference at the summit that "EU welcomes India, as a large country, to engage in developing nuclear energy, adding that this clean energy will be helpful for the world to deal with the global climate change." Sarkozy also said the EU and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan pledged to accelerate talks on a free trade deal and expected to finish the deal by 2009. The Indian prime minister was also cautiously optimistic about cooperation on nuclear energy. "Tomorrow we have a bilateral summit with France. This matter will come up and I hope some good results will emerge out of that meeting," Singh said when asked about the issue. Singh said that he was "very satisfied" with the results of the summit. He added that EU and India have "common values" and the two economies are complementary to each other.

European Commission President José Manuel Barroso, also speaking at Monday's press conference, expounded the joint action plan on adjustments of EU's strategic partnership with India, saying the two sides will strengthen cooperation on world peace and safety, sustainable development, cooperation in science and technology and cultural exchanges.

Reviewing the two sides' efforts in developing the bilateral strategic partnership, the joint action plan reckoned that in politics, dialogue and cooperation have enhanced through regular summits and exchanges of visits and that in economy, mutual investments have increased dramatically in recent years, dialogue in macro economic policies and financial services has established and cooperation in energy, science and technology and environment has been launched. Under the joint action plan, EU and Indian would enhance consultation and dialogue on human rights within the UN framework, strengthen cooperation in world peacekeeping mission, fight against terror and non-proliferation of arms, promote cooperation and exchange in developing civil nuclear energy and strike a free trade deal as soon as possible. France, which relies heavily on nuclear power and is a major exporter of nuclear technology, is expected to sign a deal that would allow it to provide nuclear fuel to India.

Trade between India and the 27-nation EU has more than doubled from 25.6 billion euros ($36.7 billion) in 2000 to 55.6 billion euros last year, with further expansion to be seen. "We have agreed to achieve an annual bilateral trade turnover of 100 billion euros within the next five years," Singh told reporters. A joint statement issued at the end of the summit said the EU and India would work to reach an agreement on climate change by the end of 2009.[161]

[edit]United Kingdom

Since 1947, India's relations with the United Kingdom have been through bilateral, as well as through the Commonwealth of Nationsframework. Although the Sterling Area no longer exists and the Commonwealth is much more an informal forum, India and the UK still have many enduring links. This is in part due to the significant number of people of Indian origin living in the UK. The large South Asian population in the UK results in steady travel and communication between the two countries. The British Raj allowed for both cultures to imbibe tremendously from the other. The English language and cricket are perhaps the two most evident British exports, whilst in the UK food from the indian subcontinent are very popular.[162] The United Kingdom's favourite food is often reported to be Indian Cuisine, although no official study reports this.[162]

Economically the relationship between Britain and India is also strong. India is the second largest investor in Britain after the US.[163][164]Britain is also one of the largest investors in India.[165]

The Queen's visits to India have been enormously successful along with those by other members of the Royal Family. Britain has also supported India's rise to prominence on the international stage, including advocating a permanent seat on the Security Council.[166][dead link]The UK recently gave India a £825 million aid package to help India develop its health and education systems.[161][167]


The Indian Air Force has the second largest fleet of France's Mirage 2000H afterArmée de l'Air.

France and India established diplomatic relationships soon after India achieved independence in 1947. India's strong diplomatic ties with France resulted in the peaceful cession of Pondicherry to India on November 1, 1954 without any military opposition from France.

France, Russia and Israel were the only countries that did not condemn India's decision to go nuclear in 1998.[168] In 2003, France became the largest supplier of nuclear fuel and technology to India and remains a large military and economic trade partner. India's permanent member aspirations in the UN Security Council have found very strong support from former FrenchPresident Chirac and more recently by the current French President Nicolas Sarkozy. The recent decision by the Indian government to purchase French Scorpène class submarines worth $3 billionUSD and 43 Airbus aircraft for Air India worth $2.5 billion USD has further cemented the strategic, military and economic co-operation between India and France.

Nicolas Sarkozy visited India in January 2008 and was the Chief Guest of the Republic Day parade in New Delhi. France was the first country to sign a nuclear energy co-operation agreement with India; this was done during Prime Minister Singh's visit, following the waiver by theNuclear Suppliers Group. During the Bastille Day celebrations on July 14, 2009, a detachment of 400 Indian troops marched along with the French troops as well as the Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh was the guest of honour.[169]


Despite racial and religious disconnections, India and Italy have enjoyed overall pleasurable and strong relations throughout history. Italy and India are also close economic partners and is home to a large population of Indian immigrants. The chief of India's leading political party, theIndian National CongressSonia Gandhi, arguably the most powerful Indian woman, is of Italian descent.

Unfortunately at diplomatic level the relations seem not to be always good, an example is the terrible visa situation between the two countries for the past few years, visas of any kind (tourist, business, employment and others) are issued for very short term and after a lot of hurdles for both Indian and Italian nationals. This situation has reduced noticeably the possibility of tourism and business development between the two countries. Also, relations have also been strained because of Italy's good relationship with Pakistan. It is not officially known the reason for the current diplomatic situation. India has an embassy in Rome, a general consulate in Milan. Italy has an embassy in New Delhi, two general consulates (in Mumbai and Calcutta).

There are around 100,000 people of Indian Origin living in Italy, meanwhile there are only around 300 Italian citizens residing in India mostly working on behalf of Italian industrial groups.


Arrival of the first Indian student to Dresden, East Germany, in 1951

During the Cold War India maintained diplomatic relations with West Germany and East Germany. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the reunification of Germany, relations have further improved. The German ambassador to India, Bernd Mutzelburg, once said that India and Germany, are not just 'natural partners', but important countries in a globalised world. Germany is India's largest trade partner in Europe. German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited India recently, as did the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visit Germany. Both countries have been working towards gaining permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. As both countries are strong liberal democracies, they have similar objectives. UN reforms, fighting terrorism and climate change, and promotion of science, education, technology, and human rights, are some areas of shared interests, and collaboration between these two countries. Culturally too, Indian and German writers and philosophers, have influenced each other.[170] Recently, Germany has invested in developing education and skills amongst rural Indians. Also of note, during World War 2 an Indian division known as the Tiger Legion was attached to the German Wehrmacht.


The first contact between both civilization dates back from Alexander the Great's visit to India and eventual retreat. Alexander's seemingly un-stoppable eastward expansion was halted at the Kingdoms of North-Western of India. 3000 BC and earlier, the Mahabharata talks of Indian warrior Kings' conquest of Greece and the cultural exchange resulting therefrom.

In modern time, diplomatic relations between Greece and India were established in May 1950. The new Greek Embassy building in New Delhiwas inaugurated on February 6, 2001.


Due to controversial issues such as Turkey's close relationship with Pakistan and India's strong relations with Greece and Armenia, relations between the two countries have often been blistered at certain times, but better at others. India and Turkey's relationship alters from unsureness to collaboration when the two nations work together to combat terrorism in Central and South Asia, and the Middle East. India and Turkey are also connected by history, seeing as they've known each other since the days of the Ottoman Empire, and seeing as India was one of the countries to send aid to Turkey following its war of independence. The Indian real estate firm GMR, has invested in and is working towards the modernization of Istanbul's Sabiha Gökçen International Airport.

[edit]Other European countries

Country↓ Formal Relations Began↓ Notes↓
 Armenia 1992-08-31 See Armenia–India relations

The first contacts between both civilizations date back from 2,500 years ago, during the 5th century BC. In modern times, India recognized Armenia on December 26, 1991.

 Belarus See Foreign relations of Belarus
 Bulgaria 1954 See Bulgaria–India relations
 Croatia See Foreign relations of Croatia
 Cyprus See Foreign relations of Cyprus
 Denmark See Denmark-India relations
 Estonia 1991-09-09 See Estonia–India relations

India's first recognition of Estonia came on 22 September 1921 when the former had just acquired membership in the League of Nations. India re-recognised Estonia on September 9, 1991 and diplomatic relations were established on December 2 of the same year in Helsinki. Neither country has a resident ambassador. Estonia is represented in India by two honorary consulates (in Mumbaiand New Delhi). India is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland) and through an honorary consulate in Tallinn.

 Finland See Foreign relations of Finland
 Georgia See Foreign relations of Georgia
 Holy See See Foreign relations of the Holy See
 Iceland See Iceland–India relations

Iceland and India established diplomatic relations in 1972. The Embassy of Iceland in London was accredited to India and the Embassy of India in OsloNorway, was accredited to Iceland. However, it was only after 2003 that the two countries have began close diplomatic and economic relationships.[173] In 2003, President of Iceland Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson visited India on diplomatic mission. This was the first visit by an Icelandic President to India. During the visit, Iceland pledged support to New Delhi's candidature for a permanent seat in the United Nation Security Council thus becoming the first Nordic country to do so. This was followed by an official visit of President of India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam to Iceland in May 2005.[174] Following this a new embassy of Iceland was opened in New Delhi on 26 February 2006.[173] Soon, an Indian Navy team visited Iceland on friendly mission.[175] Gunnar Pálsson is the ambassador of Iceland to India. The Embassy's area of accreditation, apart from India includes BangladeshIndonesia, the SeychellesSingaporeSri Lanka,MalaysiaMaldivesMauritius and Nepal.[176] India appointed S. Swaminathan as the first resident ambassador to Iceland in March 2008.[177]

 Ireland See India – Ireland relations

Indo-Irish relations picked up steam during the freedom struggles of the respective countries against a common imperial empire in the United Kingdom. Political relations between the two states have largely been based on socio-cultural ties, although political and economic ties have also helped build relations. Indo-Irish relations were greatly strengthened by the such luminaries as the likes of Pandit NehruÉamon de ValeraRabindranath TagoreW. B. YeatsJames Joyce, and, above all, Annie Besant. Politically relations have not been cold nor warm. Mutual benefit has led to economic ties that are fruitful for both states.[citation needed] Visits by government leaders have kept relations cordial at regular intervals.

 Malta See India–Malta relations

Malta opened a High Commission in New Delhi in 2007. Malta also has an honorary consulate in Mumbai. India is represented in Malta through its embassy in TripoliLibya and an honorary consulate in Valletta.

 Poland See India–Poland relations

Historically, relations have generally been close and friendly, characterized by understanding and cooperation on international front.[178]

 Russia See India–Russia relations

During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Union enjoyed a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomatic relationship. After the collapse of the USSR, India improved its relations with the West but it continued its close relations with Russia. India is the second largest market for Russian arms industry. In 2004, more than 70% on Indian Military's hardware came from Russia, making Russia the chief supplier of arms.[181] India has an embassy in Moscow and two Consulates-General (in Saint Petersburg and Vladivostok). Russia has an embassy in New Delhi and three Consulates-General (inChennaiKolkataMumbai). Since 2000 and the visit of Vladimir Putin in India there have been an Indo-Russian Strategic Partnership.

 Spain 1956
  • Spain has an embassy in New Delhi and a consulate in Mumbai.
  • India has an embassy in Madrid and consulates in Barcelona and Tenerife
 Ukraine See India–Ukraine relations

Diplomatic relations between India and Ukraine were established in January 1992. Indian Embassy inKiev was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its mission in New Delhi in February 1993. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 till its closure in March 1999.

[edit]West Asia

[edit]Arab states of the Persian Gulf

India and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf enjoy strong cultural and economic ties. This is reflected in the fact that more than 50% of the oil consumed by India comes from the Persian Gulf countries[185] and Indian nationals form the largest expatriate community in the Arabian peninsula.[186] The annual remittance by Indian expatriates in the region amounted to US$20 billion in 2007.[187] India is one of the largest trading partners of the CCASG with non-oil trade between India and Dubai alone amounting to US$19 billion in 2007.[188] The Persian Gulf countries have also played an important role in addressing India's energy security concerns, with Saudi Arabia and Kuwait regularly increasing their oil supply to India to meet the country's rising energy demand. In 2005, Kuwait increased its oil exports to India by 10% increasing the net oil trade between the two to US$4.5 billion.[189] In 2008, Qatar decided to invest US$5 billion in India's energy sector.[190]

India has maritime security arrangement in place with Oman and Qatar.[191] In 2008, a landmark defense pact was signed, under which India committed its military assets to protect "Qatar from external threats".[192] There has been progress in a proposed deep-sea gas pipeline from Qatar, via Oman, to India.[193]


India is a close ally of Bahrain, the Kingdom along with its GCC partners are (according to Indian officials) among the most prominent backers of India's bid for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council,[194] and Bahraini officials have urged India to play a greater role in international affairs. For instance, over concerns about Iran's nuclear programme Bahrain's Crown Prince appealed to India to play an active role in resolving the crisis.[195]

Ties between India and Bahrain go back generations, with many of Bahrain's most prominent figures having close connections: poet and constitutionalist Ebrahim Al-Arrayedh grew up in Bombay, while 17th century Bahraini theologians Sheikh Salih Al-Karzakani and Sheikh Ja`far bin Kamal al-Din were influential figures in the Kingdom of Golkonda[196] and the development of Shia thought in the sub-continent.

Bahraini politicians have sought to enhance these long standing ties, with Parliamentary Speaker Khalifa Al Dhahrani in 2007 leading a delegation of parliamentarians and business leaders to meet Indian President Pratibha Patil, opposition leader L K Advani, and take part in training and media interviews.[197] Politically, it is easier for Bahrain's politicians to seek training and advice from India than it is from the United States or other western alternative.

In December 2007, the Bahrain India Society was launched in Manama to promote ties between the two countries. Headed by the former Minister of Labour Abdulnabi Al Shoala, the Society seeks to take advantage of the development in civil society to actively work to strengthen ties between the two countries, not only business links, but according to the body's opening statement in politics, social affairs, science and culture. India's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs E Ahmed and his Bahraini counterpart Dr Nazar Al Baharna attended the launch.[198]


Modern Egypt-India relations go back to the contacts between Saad Zaghloul and Mohandas Gandhi on the common goals of their respective movements of independence.[199] In 1955, Egypt under Gamal Abdul Nasser and India under Jawaharlal Nehru became the founders of theNon-Aligned Movement. During the 1956 War, Nehru stood supporting Egypt to the point of threatening to withdraw his country from theCommonwealth of Nations. In 1967, following the Arab-Israeli war, India supported Egypt and the Arabs. In 1977, New Delhi described the visit of President Anwar al-Sadat to Jerusalem as a "brave" move and considered the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel a primary step on the path of a just settlement of the Middle East problem. Major Egyptian exports to India include raw cotton, raw and manufactured fertilizers, oil and oil products, organic and non-organic chemicals, leather and iron products. Major imports into Egypt from India are cotton yarn, sesame, coffee, herbs, tobacco, lentils, pharmaceutical products and transport equipment. The Egyptian Ministry of Petroleum is also currently negotiating the establishment of a natural gas-operated fertilizer plant with another Indian company. In 2004 the Gas Authority of India Limited, bought 15% of Egypt Nat Gas distribution and marketing company. In 2008 Egyptian investment in India was worth some 750 million dollars, according to the Egyptian ambassador.[200]


Main article: India–Iran relations
Seen here is Rabindranath Tagore as a guest of Iran's parliament in the 1930s.

After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Iran withdrew from CENTO and dissociated itself from US-friendly countries, including Pakistan, which automatically entailed improved relationship with the Republic of India.

Currently, the two countries have friendly relations in many areas. There are significant trade ties, particularly in crude oil imports into India and diesel exports to Iran. Iran frequently objected to Pakistan's attempts to draft anti-India resolutions at international organizations such as the OIC. India welcomed Iran's inclusion as an observer state in the SAARC regional organization. Lucknow continues to be a major centre of Shiite culture and Persian study in the subcontinent.

In the 1990s, India and Iran both supported the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against theTaliban regime. They continue to collaborate in supporting the broad-based anti-Taliban government led by Hamid Karzai and backed by the United States.


Main article: Indo-Iraqi relations

Iraq was one of the few countries in the Middle East with which India established diplomatic relations at the embassy level immediately after its independence in 1947.[201] Both nations signed the "Treaty of Perpetual Peace and Friendship" in 1952 and an agreement of cooperation on cultural affairs in 1954.[201] India was amongst the first to recognize the Baath Party-led government, and Iraq remained neutral during theIndo-Pakistani War of 1965. However, Iraq sided alongside other Persian Gulf states in supporting Pakistan against India during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which saw the creation of Bangladesh.[201] The eight-year long Iran–Iraq War caused a steep decline in trade and commerce between the two nations.[201]

During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, India remained neutral but permitted refueling for U.S. airplanes.[201] It opposed U.N. sanctions on Iraq, but the period of war and Iraq's isolation further diminished India's commercial and diplomatic ties.[201] From 1999 onwards, Iraq and India began to work towards a stronger relationship. Iraq had supported India's right to conduct nuclear tests following its tests of five nuclear weapons on May 11 and May 13, 1998.[201] In 2000, the then-Vice President of Iraq Taha Yassin Ramadan visited India, and on August 6, 2002 President Saddam Hussein conveyed Iraq's "unwavering support" to India over the Kashmir dispute with Pakistan.[201][202] India and Iraq established joint ministerial committees and trade delegations to promote extensive bilateral cooperation.[127][203] Although initially disrupted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, diplomatic and commercial ties between India and the new democratic government of Iraq have since been normalized.[203]


Main article: India-Israel relations
Beni-Israel Family at Bombay.

The creation of Israel at the end of World War II was a complex issue. India, along with Iran and Yugoslavia had recommended a single state with Arab and Jewish majority provinces with an aim to prevent partition of historic Palestine and prevent any conflict that might follow based on its own experience during partition.[204] However, the final UN resolution decided to partition historic Palestine into Arab and Jewish states based on religious and ethnic majority which India opposed in the final vote as it did not agree with concept of partition on the basis of religion.[205]

However, due to the security threat from a US aided Pakistan and its nuclear program in the 80s, Israel and India started a clandestine relationship that involved cooperation between their respective intelligence agencies.[206] Israel shared India's concerns about the growing danger posed by Pakistan and nuclear proliferation to Iran and other Arab states.[207] After the end of the Cold War, formal relations with Israel started improving significantly.[62][208]

Since the establishment of full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992, India has improved its relation with the Jewish State. India is regarded as Israel's strongest ally in Asia, and Israel is India's second largest arms supplier.

India has entertained Israeli Prime Minister in a visit in 2003,[209] and Israel has entertained Indian dignitaries such as Finance MinisterJaswant Singh in diplomatic visits. India and Israel collaborate in scientific and technological endeavors. Israel's Minister for Science and Technology has expressed interest in collaborating with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) towards utilizing satellites for better management of land and other resources. Israel has also expressed interest in participating in ISRO's Chandrayaan Mission involving an unmanned mission to the moon.[210] On January 21, 2008 India successfully launched an Israeli spy satellite into orbit from Sriharikota space station in southern India.[211]

Israel and India share intelligence on terrorist groups. They have developed close defense and security ties since establishing diplomatic relations in 1992. Israel is India's second-biggest arms supplier, after Russia. India has bought more than $5 billion worth of Israeli equipment since 2002. In addition, Israel is training Indian military units and discussing an arrangement to give Indian commandos instruction in counter-terrorist tactics and urban warfare.[212] In December 2008, Israel and India signed a memorandum to set up an Indo-Israel Legal Colloquium to facilitate discussions and exchange programs between judges and jurists of the two countries.[213]


India has a peacekeeping force as part of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). One infantry battalion is deployed in Lebanon and about 900 personnel are stationed in the Eastern part of South Lebanon.[214] The force also provided non-patrol aid to citizens.[215] India and Lebanon have very good relations since the 1950's.


Main article: India-Oman relations